Women are at a higher risk
Most studies find that about 90 per cent of lupus patients are women, according to a review in Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism.
The study also found that men tend to have more damage earlier in the disease and have lower survival rates. Hormones might play a role in sex differences, but studies have not found a conclusive answer.
Diagnosis based on symptoms and tests
Without a single blood test to clinch a lupus diagnosis, rheumatologists need to look at the whole picture.
When rheumatologists suspect an autoimmune problem, they will take your symptoms into account while looking at X-rays, blood tests, and biopsies to see if results match what they’d expect from lupus, or if it is more likely a different disease.